There are three types of them. Multilamillar vesicles or shorter MLV, small unilamellar vesicles or SUV and LUV, or large unilamellar vesicles. They are all used for delivery of different drugs. It is usually designed as model for artificial cell, but liposome can deliver drugs in other ways as well. Their specific shape and other qualities make them very useful transferring method on numerous fields, especially in medicine. They can be inhaled as a dry powder, in form of nasal spray, hydro gel or even cream or lotion, or taken intravenously.
There are so many fields where they can be used, for example in food industry, agriculture or cosmetology. They are highly efficient carriers of all types of enzymes and supplements, and thanks to the fact they are actually very similar to the real cells, they have very high biocompatibility, comparing to any other carrier. It lowers the chances for different side effects, as well as improving the diffusion and absorption of the particular drug.
A liposome is actually very small bubble made of phospholipids, just like a cell membrane is built. They have a natural ability to target the exact area where needed, for example cancer. They can find and enter tumor sites, and release their content when in there. Tumor cells have different level of seals between cells, and liposomes can penetrate through their membranes.
In addition, they are capable to carry large pieces of DNA as well. In other forms of transfer, DNA gets damaged through various degrading processes, but this way it is protected from them. Capsules may have bi layered membranes, and they can carry positively, but also negatively charged molecules. Additionally, they can be both hydrophilic and lipophilic, or to have only one of those characteristics.
There are numerous effective anticancer drugs, but their therapeutic use is sometimes challenged by different issues like drug solubility and hydrolysis. This type of drug delivery can overcome some of these problems. Different formulations can retain particular drug in buffer. They have higher retention potential and prolonged circulation, compared to free drugs.
It is proven that different pills and capsules taken orally just lose their effectiveness due to gastric system and some other related problems. Thanks to that, the level of absorption is much lower than it should be. Liposomes are very useful for taking dietary and nutritional supplements, because they significantly improve the absorption of those nutrients, making them more effective.
Using them as the carriers for all types of dietary and nutritional supplements is much better solution. It is more effective way of delivering them to the cells and tissues. This form of transferring both lipophilic and hydrophilic nutrients within small, natural capsules bypasses the gastric system and has significantly higher level of bioavailability, as well as absorption. The drug inside those capsules is better protected, and the product is more effective.
Nano liposomes are even smaller than those mentioned before, and have significantly higher efficacy. Of course, different factors affect the final quality, for example, the material used in process of production, the latest technology, size and some other conditions. The most important thing is to produce the adequate version for each particular purpose. In conclusion, liposome might change the drug industry very soon.
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